BRUSHING UP ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR: INVERSION
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Even though you may be an EFL teacher – and maybe even a native speaker – there probably are some aspects of English grammar which you’re still not sure of.
That’s ok. Just because you are the teacher doesn’t mean you need to know everything!
Here, let’s take a look at inversion.
Basically, inversion is the reversal of the normal word order in a phrase or sentence. This can either be a subject-verb inversion or a subject-auxiliary inversion.
In a subject-verb inversion, the subject and verb switch places so the word order becomes verb + subject:
At the bottom of the garden stood the old man.
In a subject-auxiliary inversion, the subject and the auxiliary switch positions so the word order becomes auxiliary + subject + verb.
Have you ever been to Japan?
You’re from Italy, aren’t you?
Had I known you were coming, I wouldn’t have left.
Never had I seen something so beautiful.
We can see then that there are several times we use inversion in English. The most common are: question formation, question tags and conditional sentences.
It is the last example which is the most interesting, however.
What this inversion is doing is emphasising. We use this inversion with negative adverbs or adverb phrases, with the result that the sentence sounds quite surprising or unusual, and also a little formal.
Common adverbs or phrases that we use with inversion include:
Not only…but also
This last use of inversion is actually quite complicated. If you think about how often you would use this kind of inversion, it’s probably not all that often. The order of the examples above actually mirror the stages our EFL learners would learn them – first in questions and questions tags, then conditionals and finally with negative adverbs.
Having said that, though, learning how to use inversion is a valuable skill for more advanced EFL learners. It can be a difficult concept to grasp so give your learners lots of exposure to examples and highlight it when it comes up in the classroom. Being able to utilise inversion appropriately is an easy way for your learners to advance their English.
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You have the right to object to the ELEARNING FUTURES LTD processing your personal data in the following circumstances:
Personal information used for direct marketing
If we are using your personal information to send you direct marketing, you have the right to object at any time. If you exercise this right, we will stop processing your personal information for direct marketing purposes. However, we may keep your information on a “suppression list” to ensure your information is not added to any marketing lists at some point in the future.
Automated decision making and profiling
- ‘Profiling’ is the automated use of personal data held on a computer to analyse or predict things that have a legal effect, or other similarly significant effects, on the individual. Examples would include economic situation, health, personal preferences or interests and location. You have the right not to be subject to a solely automated decision (that is, a decision made electronically, with no human intervention), and this may include profiling (although there is no general right to object to profiling). If you are concerned the ELEARNING FUTURES LTD has made a solely automated decision about you, you can object.
- Please note, ELEARNING FUTURES LTD is allowed to carry out automated decisions with no human intervention where you have given your explicit consent to this processing (although you have the right to withdraw your consent).
- We are also permitted to make automated decisions with no human intervention in the following circumstances:
- The automated decision is necessary to enter into, or perform a contract, or complete a contract involving you and the ELEARNING FUTURES LTD.
- The automated decision is allowed under a law passed at the European Union level, or at the level of the European Union or EEA member state level (i.e., is allowed under national law). The law will provide safeguards to protect your rights and freedoms.
However, you still have a general right to object in both of the above circumstances, providing reasons why you think the processing is having a negative effect on you. If you do object, we will carefully consider your reasons, and decide whether to review the decision-making process in your specific case.
Right to data portability
- If you have provided your information to ELEARNING FUTURES LTD, you have the right to request and receive a copy of that information in a structured, commonly used and machine-readable format.
- You also have the right to ask us to send the information we hold about you to another organisation.
- There are some situations in which the right to data portability does not apply. For further information, please contact us.
Exercising your rights concerning the processing of your personal information
If you wish to exercise any of the above rights concerning the way in which we process your personal information, please contact:
Risk Management Team
ELEARNING FUTURES LTD,
21-22 Old Steine,
Email: [email protected]
Your right to complain to a national data protection regulator (data protection supervisory authority)
- If you think we have processed your personal information unfairly or unlawfully, or we have not complied with your rights under GDPR, you have the right to complain to a national data protection regulator.
- Complaints about how we process your personal information can be considered by the data protection regulator.