Encouraging Mistakes in the TEFL Classroom
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When you are teaching English as a Foreign Language, there may be some moments when you despair of both your teaching and your students’ learning abilities. Lessons when it seems like your students are making more mistakes than they’re not, and it feels like all your lesson planning and preparation, as well as your teaching skills and techniques, are in vain. But aren’t the sounds of English mistakes exactly the sounds you want to hear in your EFL classroom? After all, if your students aren’t making mistakes then are they really learning new language? This is why we insist that as EFL teachers it is our duty in encouraging mistakes in the TEFL classroom.
What are mistakes in the EFL classroom?
Let’s back up a step. What exactly are considered mistakes in the EFL classroom?
There are a range of mistakes an English language learner can make. They might make mistakes with word choice, pronunciation, word order, subject-verb agreement and grammar, just to name the usual suspects.
Mistakes which students make because they are not familiar with the language or are still in the process of consolidating the language into their interlanguage, are often called errors. However, there are other mistakes which our students make even though they know the language. Mistakes like these include the omission of the third-person –s or the wrong word order when it comes to adjectives and nouns. They might make these mistakes from fatigue or anxiety or habit.
Read more: Why Do My Learners Make the Same Mistakes?
Why should we encourage mistakes in the EFL classroom?
Mistakes are evidence of learning and opportunities for learning. A learner who makes a mistake is taking a chance and pushing themselves and their language production. If a learner plays it safe and uses only language they are comfortable with, then they won’t make mistakes. If, however, a learner attempts to use new or unfamiliar language, they are a likely to make a mistake in their language production. This shows that they are pushing themselves to the limits of their capabilities.
What’s more, the mistakes learners make show the teacher the current language level of the learners. The mistakes will identify what language the learner knows and is able to produce, what language they are still struggling with and the gaps in their knowledge. This is valuable information for teachers so they know what language needs to be practiced, what language needs to be introduced, and what language can be accepted as a part of the students’ language.
Are all mistakes “good” mistakes?
Having said all that, we should put out that we do actually need to draw a line. What we refer to as good mistakes are errors. What are not good mistakes are mistakes. It is these mistakes which are not learning opportunities because there is nothing for the student to learn. These mistakes should be dealt with accordingly – by correction, so that they do not become fossilized and a part of a student’s language.
What’s the best way to correct mistakes?
This depends on a number of factors; namely, what kind of mistake it is and when the mistake is made. If the mistake is made during a speaking activity which focuses on accuracy, then the mistake should be dealt with immediately. However, rather than provide the answer, the teacher should highlight through gesture or intonation where the mistake is and let the learner make the correction themselves. On the other hand, if the mistake is made during a fluency speaking activity, it’s better for the teacher not to interrupt but to do a delayed error correction at the end of the activity.
Read more: Accuracy and Fluency: What’s the Big Deal?
Bear in mind, if the mistake is a mistake – and the teacher is sure the learner knows how to correct it – a quick signal from the teacher should be enough to make the learner notice and correct their mistake. But, if the mistake is a genuine error, in that the learner is not aware of the mistake or the correction, then the teacher will need to take some time to teach the relevant language.
This is where mistakes become learning opportunities. In this case, the teacher can take note of what the learner has said and draw their attention to it at an appropriate time. The teacher can either write a few example sentences with the correct language on the board and ask the learners to identify the form, meaning and context of the language, or the teacher can give a few example contexts of the language and try to elicit the form from the learners.
Either way, because the teacher is not giving the answer to the learners on a silver platter, they are being forced to work for their understanding. This means they are interacting with the language on a deeper cognitive level which, in turn, means that the language will be that much more memorable.
At the same time, when a learner is able to understand a mistake and the correction themselves, they will feel a sense of pride and accomplishment. They will get a boost in confidence towards their language learning ability and they will feel more comfortable making mistakes going forward. This effectively translates into intrinsic motivation for the learner, which is a much more powerful tool than extrinsic motivation.
Encouraging mistakes in the TEFL classroom
All of these points should have highlighted to you the need to encourage mistakes in the EFL classroom, as backward as that may sound. The most important way you can do this is by creating an atmosphere in the classroom in which the learners feel comfortable enough to make mistakes. They need to be familiar and comfortable with their classmates so they won’t be shy to make mistakes, and they need to be sure that the teacher is not going to embarrass them when they do. They should also be familiar with their teacher’s particular way of error correction so that the process of identifying and correcting their mistakes is quick, easy and effective.
Read more: Effective Error Correction
Once you have identified your preferred manner of error correction and your students become familiar with your methods, error correction will become a seamless part of your lessons, meaning that mistakes will no longer be despaired of but can instead be embraced and used to our advantage.
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Rights concerning the processing of your personal information
- Right to restrict processing of personal information
- In some situations, you have the right to require us to restrict the processing of your personal information. We may restrict your personal information by temporarily moving the information to another processing system, making the information unavailable to users, or temporarily removing published information from a website. We may also use technical methods to ensure the personal information is not subject to further processing and cannot be changed. When we have restricted processing of personal information, this will be clearly indicated on our systems.
- You can require us to restrict processing in the following circumstances:
- You are concerned that the information we hold about you is inaccurate. You can ask us to restrict the information until we can determine whether the information is accurate or inaccurate.
- We are processing your personal data unlawfully and you do not want us to delete the information but restrict it instead.
- We no longer need the information for the purposes for which we collected it, but they are needed by you for the establishment, exercise or defence of legal claims.
- You have objected to the processing (see below), and we need to decide whether the legitimate grounds we have to process the information override your legitimate interests.
Processing you think is unlawful
- If you tell us that you think we are processing your personal information unlawfully, but you do not want the information to be erased, you have the right to require us to restrict the processing of that information.
- We will ask you for an explanation about why you think the processing is unlawful, and may also ask that you provide evidence to support this view.
Processing of personal information you think is inaccurate
- You can tell us if you think the personal information we are processing about you is factually inaccurate. You can require us to restrict how we use your personal information until we can verify the accuracy of the information. We will ask you for an explanation about why you think the information is inaccurate, and may also ask that you provide some supporting evidence of the alleged inaccuracy.
- If we find that the personal information we are processing about you is inaccurate, we will take appropriate steps to correct the information.
Personal information is no longer needed by ELEARNING FUTURES LTD but needed by you in connection with a legal claim
- In most circumstances, we will securely delete or dispose of personal information when we no longer need it for our legitimate business purposes. Our approach to retention is outlined in our corporate retention schedules.
- However, if the personal information we no longer need would assist you in establishing, exercising or defending a legal claim, you can require us to keep the information for as long as necessary. We may ask you to provide an explanation and any available supporting evidence that a legal claim is ongoing or contemplated.
Right to erasure of personal data (“the right to be forgotten”)
In the following circumstances, you have the right to require that ELEARNING FUTURES LTD securely deletes or destroys your personal information:
- If the personal information we hold about you is no longer necessary for the purposes for which we originally collected it.
- The processing is based on consent – if you have previously given your consent to ELEARNING FUTURES LTD collecting and processing your personal information, and you notify us that you withdraw your consent. Please note: withdrawing your consent does not mean the processing of your personal data which occurred before the withdrawal was unlawful.
- We are processing your personal information for direct marketing purposes, and you want us to stop.
- If you think ELEARNING FUTURES LTD has processed your personal information unlawfully.
If you think any of the above situations apply, we may ask you for an explanation and further information to verify this.
Right to object to processing
You have the right to object to the ELEARNING FUTURES LTD processing your personal data in the following circumstances:
Personal information used for direct marketing
If we are using your personal information to send you direct marketing, you have the right to object at any time. If you exercise this right, we will stop processing your personal information for direct marketing purposes. However, we may keep your information on a “suppression list” to ensure your information is not added to any marketing lists at some point in the future.
Automated decision making and profiling
- ‘Profiling’ is the automated use of personal data held on a computer to analyse or predict things that have a legal effect, or other similarly significant effects, on the individual. Examples would include economic situation, health, personal preferences or interests and location. You have the right not to be subject to a solely automated decision (that is, a decision made electronically, with no human intervention), and this may include profiling (although there is no general right to object to profiling). If you are concerned the ELEARNING FUTURES LTD has made a solely automated decision about you, you can object.
- Please note, ELEARNING FUTURES LTD is allowed to carry out automated decisions with no human intervention where you have given your explicit consent to this processing (although you have the right to withdraw your consent).
- We are also permitted to make automated decisions with no human intervention in the following circumstances:
- The automated decision is necessary to enter into, or perform a contract, or complete a contract involving you and the ELEARNING FUTURES LTD.
- The automated decision is allowed under a law passed at the European Union level, or at the level of the European Union or EEA member state level (i.e., is allowed under national law). The law will provide safeguards to protect your rights and freedoms.
However, you still have a general right to object in both of the above circumstances, providing reasons why you think the processing is having a negative effect on you. If you do object, we will carefully consider your reasons, and decide whether to review the decision-making process in your specific case.
Right to data portability
- If you have provided your information to ELEARNING FUTURES LTD, you have the right to request and receive a copy of that information in a structured, commonly used and machine-readable format.
- You also have the right to ask us to send the information we hold about you to another organisation.
- There are some situations in which the right to data portability does not apply. For further information, please contact us.
Exercising your rights concerning the processing of your personal information
If you wish to exercise any of the above rights concerning the way in which we process your personal information, please contact:
Risk Management Team
ELEARNING FUTURES LTD,
21-22 Old Steine,
Email: [email protected]
Your right to complain to a national data protection regulator (data protection supervisory authority)
- If you think we have processed your personal information unfairly or unlawfully, or we have not complied with your rights under GDPR, you have the right to complain to a national data protection regulator.
- Complaints about how we process your personal information can be considered by the data protection regulator.