Word Order In Different Languages
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Learning a language involves dealing with different aspects of the language. Languages differ in many respects which can affect how easy or difficult it is to learn another language. Some languages are similar to each other (Spanish and Italian, for example) which can make it relatively easy for a Spanish-speaker to pick up Italian. Other languages, though, can be completely different (French and Arabic) so speakers of the one learning the other may experience difficulties.
These differences can relate to sounds and pronunciation, alphabet and word order. Here we will look at a few languages and compare them to English in terms of word order, to help us understand what problems our learners may have.
Let’s start with English.
English is an SVO language. This means that sentences in English follow the formula Subject-Verb-Object. Sentences need to follow this pattern or else the meaning of the sentence changes or the sentence won’t make sense.
Consider the following:
John ate a doughnut.
*A doughnut ate John.
Here the second sentence is nonsensical.
Thomas hit Sam.
Sam hit Thomas.
Here the second sentence does not have the same meaning as the first sentence.
Other languages which follow the SVO formula include the Romance languages – including Spanish, Italian, French and Portuguese, Bulgarian, Chinese and SwaHili.
Other languages follow a slightly different formula: SOV, or Subject-Object-Verb. This includes Korean, Turkish, Punjabi and Tamil. In SOV languages, a sentence such as this is grammatically correct:
She the book read
Then there are VSO languages which construct sentences Verb-Subject-Object. Arabic is one such language which follows this pattern, as illustrated by this sentence:
Ate she bread.
As you can imagine, this can cause confusion for speakers of other languages when learning English. If you are accustomed to constructing sentences in a certain order, remembering to change this order when speaking English can take time and practice.
Of course, this is a rather simple way of looking at sentence structure in language but it is an easy way to try to understand one of the many difficulties your students may face.
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You have the right to object to the ELEARNING FUTURES LTD processing your personal data in the following circumstances:
Personal information used for direct marketing
If we are using your personal information to send you direct marketing, you have the right to object at any time. If you exercise this right, we will stop processing your personal information for direct marketing purposes. However, we may keep your information on a “suppression list” to ensure your information is not added to any marketing lists at some point in the future.
Automated decision making and profiling
- ‘Profiling’ is the automated use of personal data held on a computer to analyse or predict things that have a legal effect, or other similarly significant effects, on the individual. Examples would include economic situation, health, personal preferences or interests and location. You have the right not to be subject to a solely automated decision (that is, a decision made electronically, with no human intervention), and this may include profiling (although there is no general right to object to profiling). If you are concerned the ELEARNING FUTURES LTD has made a solely automated decision about you, you can object.
- Please note, ELEARNING FUTURES LTD is allowed to carry out automated decisions with no human intervention where you have given your explicit consent to this processing (although you have the right to withdraw your consent).
- We are also permitted to make automated decisions with no human intervention in the following circumstances:
- The automated decision is necessary to enter into, or perform a contract, or complete a contract involving you and the ELEARNING FUTURES LTD.
- The automated decision is allowed under a law passed at the European Union level, or at the level of the European Union or EEA member state level (i.e., is allowed under national law). The law will provide safeguards to protect your rights and freedoms.
However, you still have a general right to object in both of the above circumstances, providing reasons why you think the processing is having a negative effect on you. If you do object, we will carefully consider your reasons, and decide whether to review the decision-making process in your specific case.
Right to data portability
- If you have provided your information to ELEARNING FUTURES LTD, you have the right to request and receive a copy of that information in a structured, commonly used and machine-readable format.
- You also have the right to ask us to send the information we hold about you to another organisation.
- There are some situations in which the right to data portability does not apply. For further information, please contact us.
Exercising your rights concerning the processing of your personal information
If you wish to exercise any of the above rights concerning the way in which we process your personal information, please contact:
Risk Management Team
ELEARNING FUTURES LTD,
21-22 Old Steine,
Email: [email protected]
Your right to complain to a national data protection regulator (data protection supervisory authority)
- If you think we have processed your personal information unfairly or unlawfully, or we have not complied with your rights under GDPR, you have the right to complain to a national data protection regulator.
- Complaints about how we process your personal information can be considered by the data protection regulator.