A rough guide to Chinese for ESL teachers
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You may not know it, but Standard Chinese is the official language spoken in Taiwan and the People’s Republic of China (PRC): this standardized version of Chinese is also known by the more familiar name of Mandarin.
China is another popular ESL teaching destination, and novice ESL teachers should familiarize themselves with a few aspects of the Chinese language if they hope to teach Chinese speakers more effectively. Here are a few points worth remembering.
1. Chinese writing uses a logographic system rather than an alphabet per se. Visit: http://acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~phalsall/texts/chinlng4.html
2. Chinese is a tonal language: the lexical or grammatical meaning of the word is essentially determined by the pitch, e.g. depending on the pitch used to pronounce the Chinese word ‘ma’, it could mean ‘mom’, ‘horse’, ‘scold’ or ‘hemp’. In contrast, English uses changes in pitch to express emotion rather than to assign a different word meaning to the utterance.
3. Chinese ESL learners (CESLLs) may experience great difficulty in reading and spelling because of the nature of the Chinese alphabet: the symbols themselves represent the words; this is unlike Latin based alphabets where the words are constructed from the various letters.
4. CESLLs experience difficulty in pronouncing individual words, and combined with the associated problem of intonation – this results in heavily accented pronunciation.
5. CESLLs have difficulty in distinguishing between the sound of ‘l’ and ‘r’ and Southern CESLLs between ‘l’ and ‘n’: this may result in an error such as ‘rate’ being mistaken for late’ and vice versa.
6. CESLLs also have problems with the common final consonant, e.g. mill may be pronounced without the double ll but with a long i, or uttered to rhyme with miller.
7. Chinese is an uninflected language: meaning is conveyed via word order (syntax), adverbials, and mutual understanding of the situation or context.
8. Chinese does not use different tenses and verb forms to deal with the notion of time.
9. The Chinese language has neither definite nor indefinite articles.
10. Verbs are normally preceded by adverbial forms.
11. Modal verbs do not have the same breadth of meaning as they do in English.
12. The English phonological system is difficult for CESLLs to come to terms with: patterns of stress and intonation are different, and some English phonemes are non-existent in Chinese.
13. CESLLs often incorrectly pronounce vowel sounds, and diphthongs are often reduced to a single sound.
14. Here are some typical examples of wrongly written sentences: ‘He will meet you as soon as he will get back, ‘He has got hired last week, ‘He good engineer, ‘How much she pay for her house?’, ‘He wish he is strong’, ‘What do you read ?’
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LAST UPDATED: 19th July 2022
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In the following circumstances, you have the right to require that ELEARNING FUTURES LTD securely deletes or destroys your personal information:
- If the personal information we hold about you is no longer necessary for the purposes for which we originally collected it.
- The processing is based on consent – if you have previously given your consent to ELEARNING FUTURES LTD collecting and processing your personal information, and you notify us that you withdraw your consent. Please note: withdrawing your consent does not mean the processing of your personal data which occurred before the withdrawal was unlawful.
- We are processing your personal information for direct marketing purposes, and you want us to stop.
- If you think ELEARNING FUTURES LTD has processed your personal information unlawfully.
If you think any of the above situations apply, we may ask you for an explanation and further information to verify this.
Right to object to processing
You have the right to object to the ELEARNING FUTURES LTD processing your personal data in the following circumstances:
Personal information used for direct marketing
If we are using your personal information to send you direct marketing, you have the right to object at any time. If you exercise this right, we will stop processing your personal information for direct marketing purposes. However, we may keep your information on a “suppression list” to ensure your information is not added to any marketing lists at some point in the future.
Automated decision making and profiling
- ‘Profiling’ is the automated use of personal data held on a computer to analyse or predict things that have a legal effect, or other similarly significant effects, on the individual. Examples would include economic situation, health, personal preferences or interests and location. You have the right not to be subject to a solely automated decision (that is, a decision made electronically, with no human intervention), and this may include profiling (although there is no general right to object to profiling). If you are concerned the ELEARNING FUTURES LTD has made a solely automated decision about you, you can object.
- Please note, ELEARNING FUTURES LTD is allowed to carry out automated decisions with no human intervention where you have given your explicit consent to this processing (although you have the right to withdraw your consent).
- We are also permitted to make automated decisions with no human intervention in the following circumstances:
- The automated decision is necessary to enter into, or perform a contract, or complete a contract involving you and the ELEARNING FUTURES LTD.
- The automated decision is allowed under a law passed at the European Union level, or at the level of the European Union or EEA member state level (i.e., is allowed under national law). The law will provide safeguards to protect your rights and freedoms.
However, you still have a general right to object in both of the above circumstances, providing reasons why you think the processing is having a negative effect on you. If you do object, we will carefully consider your reasons, and decide whether to review the decision-making process in your specific case.
Right to data portability
- If you have provided your information to ELEARNING FUTURES LTD, you have the right to request and receive a copy of that information in a structured, commonly used and machine-readable format.
- You also have the right to ask us to send the information we hold about you to another organisation.
- There are some situations in which the right to data portability does not apply. For further information, please contact us.
Exercising your rights concerning the processing of your personal information
If you wish to exercise any of the above rights concerning the way in which we process your personal information, please contact:
Risk Management Team
ELEARNING FUTURES LTD,
21-22 Old Steine,
Email: [email protected]
Your right to complain to a national data protection regulator (data protection supervisory authority)
- If you think we have processed your personal information unfairly or unlawfully, or we have not complied with your rights under GDPR, you have the right to complain to a national data protection regulator.
- Complaints about how we process your personal information can be considered by the data protection regulator.