Language-specific Pronunciation Problems for English Language Learners
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If you’ve ever tried to speak a foreign language you would probably have realized that apart from learning the vocabulary and the grammar, just being able to pronounce the words can be a challenge in itself. Foreign words feel different in our mouths because we probably have not had much practice making the sounds of that language or certain sounds don’t exist in our language. However, whatever language we are learning we can be sure that other people are having similar, if not the same, problems – especially if we speak the same first language.
That’s right: it’s possible to predict a learner’s pronunciation problems with the language they are learning based on their first language. In turn, this means we can predict language-specific pronunciation problems for English language learners.
How is this helpful?
Well, as a teacher we need to prepare for our lessons. Part of our preparation is anticipating problems so that we can prepare activities which can help our learners deal with these particular problems. For example, if we know our students are going to struggle with the pronunciation of the regular –ed ending with certain verbs (asked, played) then we can make sure we know the rules of pronunciation ourselves, as well as how to pronounce the sounds, and we need to be able to give examples to our students. So when the problematic pronunciation item comes up in the lesson, we won’t be surprised or have to think on our feet because we will have everything we need already at our fingertips.
So let’s look at a few languages that your learners may speak as a first language and a few of the most common pronunciation problems they may have in your classroom.
Common pronunciation problems for Chinese learners of English
Chinese (Mandarin and Cantonese) is a tonal language. This means that a word can be pronounced with a number of different tones and each tone will convey a different meaning of the word. English by contrast is not a tonal language and only uses intonation on a sentence level. Chinese speakers may have initial difficulty understanding the differences in intonation between the two languages.
Consonant clusters don’t exist in Chinese. As a result, Chinese speakers may add in another syllable in a consonant cluster in an English word or they may omit one of the sounds altogether. For example, smoke could be samoke, and words could be wors. This is the same for words which end in a consonant sound. For example, card could be car and change could be chain.
The sounds /r/ and /v/ don’t exist in Chinese and so naturally Chinese learners have difficulty pronouncing them or even identifying the difference between them. For example, rice becomes lice and very becomes wewy.
Read more: 5 Problems for Chinese Speakers of English
Common pronunciation problems for Thai learners of English
Thai speakers have similar pronunciation problems as Chinese speakers.
What’s more, Thai speakers have problems with the /ʧ/ sound when it is at the beginning of a word. They usually replace the /ʧ/ with /ʃ/. For example, church would become shurch.
There is also a problem with /ð/ and /ɵ/. These sounds are often replaced by /z/ or /d/, or /s/ or /t/ respectively. For example, the becomes de and thing becomes ting.
Read more: Teaching English in Thailand
Common pronunciation problems for Korean learners of English
Korean is a phonetic language, which means there is only one way to pronounce a sound. English, in contrast, has many different ways to pronounce the same letter(s).
Korean speakers struggle to hear the difference between some short and long vowel sounds, such as ship and sheep, as well as the difference between /e/ and /ɶ/, as in egg and apple. As a result they may confuse these sounds in their language production.
There are some consonant sounds in English which Korean does not have. Because of this Korean speakers will use another sound in its place. For example, rice becomes lice, this becomes zis, and ship becomes sip.
Common pronunciation problems for Arabic learners of English
Though Arabic differs slightly depending on where it is spoken, there are a few pronunciation problems we can identify for Arabic learners of English.
There are no silent letters in Arabic so Arabic speakers will pronounce silent letters, such as the s in island or the k in knife.
There is no /p/ or /v/ sound in Arabic. Instead, Arabic speakers will replace those sounds with /b/ and /f/ respectively. For example, pepper can be bebber, and very can be fery.
Consonant clusters also cause problems for Arabic speakers, with the result that they will insert a vowel sound both before and in the cluster. For example, stress would be esteress. As you can imagine, this can cause huge pronunciation and comprehensibility issues.
Arabic speakers may further struggle with word and sentence stress and intonation. They are used to a more restricted range of tones when speaking and so may sound monotonous when speaking English.
Read more: 3 Common Problems for Arabic Learners of English
Common pronunciation problems for Spanish learners of English
Though Spanish speakers are generally very communicative even if their English level is quite low, their accent and pronunciation issues can cause breakdowns in communication.
Firstly, Spanish doesn’t differentiate between short and long sounds. This can cause problems with ship and sheep, and bit and beat, among other words.
They can also find it difficult to differentiate similar vowel sounds, making words like cat and cut, and boat and bought problematic.
Confusion also arises between /b/ and /v/, /ʤ/ and /ʧ/, and /ʤ/ and /y/. This is evident in words like berry and very, jeep and cheap, and jot and yacht.
Read more: 5 Common Problems for Spanish Speakers Learning English as a Foreign Language
A very notable difficulty is words which start with s. In Spanish, words do not start with s followed by a consonant but rather with es, which is why Spanish speakers will pronounce words like Spain as eSpain.
We could talk all day about the different pronunciation problems of our learners who speak different languages. As TEFL teachers we can find ourselves teaching English to learners of many different languages. If you are not familiar with that particular language, do some research and find out what the common pronunciation problems are. This will help you prepare for your lessons with these learners which will, essentially, help your learners be able to communicate in English better.
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- proof of your identity
- proof of your home address
- any information that we reasonably need to locate the information you have requested (for example details of the ELEARNING FUTURES LTD offices or staff that you have had contact with and when)
We will not start looking for your information until we receive all of the above. In order to submit your request, or for help making a request, please contact us.
Rights concerning the processing of your personal information
- Right to restrict processing of personal information
- In some situations, you have the right to require us to restrict the processing of your personal information. We may restrict your personal information by temporarily moving the information to another processing system, making the information unavailable to users, or temporarily removing published information from a website. We may also use technical methods to ensure the personal information is not subject to further processing and cannot be changed. When we have restricted processing of personal information, this will be clearly indicated on our systems.
- You can require us to restrict processing in the following circumstances:
- You are concerned that the information we hold about you is inaccurate. You can ask us to restrict the information until we can determine whether the information is accurate or inaccurate.
- We are processing your personal data unlawfully and you do not want us to delete the information but restrict it instead.
- We no longer need the information for the purposes for which we collected it, but they are needed by you for the establishment, exercise or defence of legal claims.
- You have objected to the processing (see below), and we need to decide whether the legitimate grounds we have to process the information override your legitimate interests.
Processing you think is unlawful
- If you tell us that you think we are processing your personal information unlawfully, but you do not want the information to be erased, you have the right to require us to restrict the processing of that information.
- We will ask you for an explanation about why you think the processing is unlawful, and may also ask that you provide evidence to support this view.
Processing of personal information you think is inaccurate
- You can tell us if you think the personal information we are processing about you is factually inaccurate. You can require us to restrict how we use your personal information until we can verify the accuracy of the information. We will ask you for an explanation about why you think the information is inaccurate, and may also ask that you provide some supporting evidence of the alleged inaccuracy.
- If we find that the personal information we are processing about you is inaccurate, we will take appropriate steps to correct the information.
Personal information is no longer needed by ELEARNING FUTURES LTD but needed by you in connection with a legal claim
- In most circumstances, we will securely delete or dispose of personal information when we no longer need it for our legitimate business purposes. Our approach to retention is outlined in our corporate retention schedules.
- However, if the personal information we no longer need would assist you in establishing, exercising or defending a legal claim, you can require us to keep the information for as long as necessary. We may ask you to provide an explanation and any available supporting evidence that a legal claim is ongoing or contemplated.
Right to erasure of personal data (“the right to be forgotten”)
In the following circumstances, you have the right to require that ELEARNING FUTURES LTD securely deletes or destroys your personal information:
- If the personal information we hold about you is no longer necessary for the purposes for which we originally collected it.
- The processing is based on consent – if you have previously given your consent to ELEARNING FUTURES LTD collecting and processing your personal information, and you notify us that you withdraw your consent. Please note: withdrawing your consent does not mean the processing of your personal data which occurred before the withdrawal was unlawful.
- We are processing your personal information for direct marketing purposes, and you want us to stop.
- If you think ELEARNING FUTURES LTD has processed your personal information unlawfully.
If you think any of the above situations apply, we may ask you for an explanation and further information to verify this.
Right to object to processing
You have the right to object to the ELEARNING FUTURES LTD processing your personal data in the following circumstances:
Personal information used for direct marketing
If we are using your personal information to send you direct marketing, you have the right to object at any time. If you exercise this right, we will stop processing your personal information for direct marketing purposes. However, we may keep your information on a “suppression list” to ensure your information is not added to any marketing lists at some point in the future.
Automated decision making and profiling
- ‘Profiling’ is the automated use of personal data held on a computer to analyse or predict things that have a legal effect, or other similarly significant effects, on the individual. Examples would include economic situation, health, personal preferences or interests and location. You have the right not to be subject to a solely automated decision (that is, a decision made electronically, with no human intervention), and this may include profiling (although there is no general right to object to profiling). If you are concerned the ELEARNING FUTURES LTD has made a solely automated decision about you, you can object.
- Please note, ELEARNING FUTURES LTD is allowed to carry out automated decisions with no human intervention where you have given your explicit consent to this processing (although you have the right to withdraw your consent).
- We are also permitted to make automated decisions with no human intervention in the following circumstances:
- The automated decision is necessary to enter into, or perform a contract, or complete a contract involving you and the ELEARNING FUTURES LTD.
- The automated decision is allowed under a law passed at the European Union level, or at the level of the European Union or EEA member state level (i.e., is allowed under national law). The law will provide safeguards to protect your rights and freedoms.
However, you still have a general right to object in both of the above circumstances, providing reasons why you think the processing is having a negative effect on you. If you do object, we will carefully consider your reasons, and decide whether to review the decision-making process in your specific case.
Right to data portability
- If you have provided your information to ELEARNING FUTURES LTD, you have the right to request and receive a copy of that information in a structured, commonly used and machine-readable format.
- You also have the right to ask us to send the information we hold about you to another organisation.
- There are some situations in which the right to data portability does not apply. For further information, please contact us.
Exercising your rights concerning the processing of your personal information
If you wish to exercise any of the above rights concerning the way in which we process your personal information, please contact:
Risk Management Team
ELEARNING FUTURES LTD,
21-22 Old Steine,
Email: [email protected]
Your right to complain to a national data protection regulator (data protection supervisory authority)
- If you think we have processed your personal information unfairly or unlawfully, or we have not complied with your rights under GDPR, you have the right to complain to a national data protection regulator.
- Complaints about how we process your personal information can be considered by the data protection regulator.