Practising the Past Simple Pronunciation
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The past simple tense in English can seem pretty straightforward. Besides the irregular verbs, there’s not much to it. Until you come to the pronunciation. If you are a native speaker, you’ve probably never given the pronunciation of regular past simple verbs much thought. But for English language learners, their pronunciation can be infuriating.
Let’s first think about the rules.
If the verb ends in /t/ or /d/, the past simple ending is pronounced /Id/.
For example, wanted and ended.
If the verb ends in a voiceless sound, such as /p/, /f/, /s/, /ʃ/, /ʧ/ or /k/, the past simple ending is pronounced /t/.
For example, stopped and washed.
If the verb ends in another voiced sound, the past simple ending is pronounced /d/.
For example, played and allowed.
As you can imagine, this is a lot of information for our learners to keep in mind when trying to speak fluently. While it is not complicated it will take practice to get used to using the correct pronunciation ending.
One activity you can use in your EFL classroom to help your learners is a categorisation activity.
What is a categorisation activity?
A categorisation activity is exactly what it says. The learners must put words into their correct categories. In this case, learners must put the verbs and their endings in their correct categories. This can be done by creating cards with the present stem of regular verbs. Hand these out to the students.
On the board, make columns for the three different pronunciation endings – /t/, /d/, /Id/ -, without writing the rules. Make sure your students understand the IPA symbols. Let your students categorise the vocabulary cards by sticking them on the board in the correct categories.
Do not help them in any way. Don’t even indicate whether they are correct or not. When they have done all the vocabulary cards, let them know how many are wrong without actually telling them which ones are the incorrect ones. Give them time to change their answers and continue until they are all correct.
This can even be done before you focus on the rules. By allowing your students to complete this activity by trial and error they should figure out the rules for themselves. In this way the rules will be more memorable for them.
Even though a grammar point can be relatively simple, sometimes pronunciation can be more complicated. Pronunciation of the regular past simple endings can be problematic for English learners at lower levels but we can help them out with this simple categorisation activity.
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- If you think ELEARNING FUTURES LTD has processed your personal information unlawfully.
If you think any of the above situations apply, we may ask you for an explanation and further information to verify this.
Right to object to processing
You have the right to object to the ELEARNING FUTURES LTD processing your personal data in the following circumstances:
Personal information used for direct marketing
If we are using your personal information to send you direct marketing, you have the right to object at any time. If you exercise this right, we will stop processing your personal information for direct marketing purposes. However, we may keep your information on a “suppression list” to ensure your information is not added to any marketing lists at some point in the future.
Automated decision making and profiling
- ‘Profiling’ is the automated use of personal data held on a computer to analyse or predict things that have a legal effect, or other similarly significant effects, on the individual. Examples would include economic situation, health, personal preferences or interests and location. You have the right not to be subject to a solely automated decision (that is, a decision made electronically, with no human intervention), and this may include profiling (although there is no general right to object to profiling). If you are concerned the ELEARNING FUTURES LTD has made a solely automated decision about you, you can object.
- Please note, ELEARNING FUTURES LTD is allowed to carry out automated decisions with no human intervention where you have given your explicit consent to this processing (although you have the right to withdraw your consent).
- We are also permitted to make automated decisions with no human intervention in the following circumstances:
- The automated decision is necessary to enter into, or perform a contract, or complete a contract involving you and the ELEARNING FUTURES LTD.
- The automated decision is allowed under a law passed at the European Union level, or at the level of the European Union or EEA member state level (i.e., is allowed under national law). The law will provide safeguards to protect your rights and freedoms.
However, you still have a general right to object in both of the above circumstances, providing reasons why you think the processing is having a negative effect on you. If you do object, we will carefully consider your reasons, and decide whether to review the decision-making process in your specific case.
Right to data portability
- If you have provided your information to ELEARNING FUTURES LTD, you have the right to request and receive a copy of that information in a structured, commonly used and machine-readable format.
- You also have the right to ask us to send the information we hold about you to another organisation.
- There are some situations in which the right to data portability does not apply. For further information, please contact us.
Exercising your rights concerning the processing of your personal information
If you wish to exercise any of the above rights concerning the way in which we process your personal information, please contact:
Risk Management Team
ELEARNING FUTURES LTD,
21-22 Old Steine,
Email: [email protected]
Your right to complain to a national data protection regulator (data protection supervisory authority)
- If you think we have processed your personal information unfairly or unlawfully, or we have not complied with your rights under GDPR, you have the right to complain to a national data protection regulator.
- Complaints about how we process your personal information can be considered by the data protection regulator.